If you're playing on 1.13 or older or in a 1.14 snapshot that doesn't have the beacons-stopped-working bug in it, make sure the beacon can see the sky (glass is okay for this purpose, stained glass will even change the color of the beam). Also make sure to put the ingot/gem in the slot and pick your effects, I don't think the beacon powers up just because you put it down but I might be wrong on that.
Beyond that, simply verify you have built the base correctly out of iron blocks, gold blocks, diamond blocks, or emerald blocks.
Thank you. I believe I've done everything correctly. The beacon doesn't shine at soon as you put it on the blocks? It must have the bug.
If working properly (ie no bug) the beacon beam should form when the beacon is placed (assuming it has a pyramid under it and a sky view – but I've sometimes seen a brief ie ~1/2 second? delay), but will not provide any buff until this is set by the player.
What version are you playing?
How did you build the pryamid? (At one point, there was a version that only required mineral blocks on the outer 'skin' of the pyramid – rather than the entire pyramid as is now true in java.)
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WARNING: I have an extemely "grindy" playstyle; YMMV — if this doesn't seem fun to you, mine what you can from it & bin the rest.