What is the transmission time for a signal through redstone wire? I'm assuming it's shorter than the 2 game ticks it takes for an ungapped redstone repeater but by how much? For example, would redstone wire across 2 blocks have the same delay as 1 ungapped repeater or would it take more. I'm building a circuit where it is very important that some things happen before others but I'd still like the delay to be minimal.
The propagation time for a redstone [RS] signal along a redstone dust [RSD] 'wire' [no other components] is 'infinite': the signal will arrive at the RSD next to a lever and one 15 blocks away at the 'same time'. 'Infinite' and 'same time' are in quotes because the computer running the program does need to process the blocks in order which takes a very much less than 1-tick, but still non-zero, amount of time.
A line of two RSD (or 15) would propagate a RS signal from end to end in the same RS tick (0.1 second realtime barring lag) that any receive power.
Assuming "ungapped repeater" means a repeater as placed (that is with a 1 RS tick delay), the output would occur 1 RS tick after the repeater received an input, that is on the next RS tick.
[As an aside, a RS tick is twice as long as a game tick, which can be confusing if which is being referenced is neither specified nor clear from context.]
Some experiment is likely to be called for in any case. [If you are familiar with headless piston bedrock breaking machines, you will know that two repeaters on 1 tick are not always the same as one repeater on two ticks.]
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WARNING: I have an extemely "grindy" playstyle; YMMV — if this doesn't seem fun to you, mine what you can from it & bin the rest.
I wonder though, I power 6 pistons from the same source, all extending into the same single block from 6 sides. Only one piston head can fit in there, so only one piston should fire. Which one will it be?
That's a very interesting question. The first time it will probably be the nearest to the source of energy due to the processing lag. But once in one of my mechanisms the furthest piston got triggered first. I attached a repeater to the nearest one so the other one got triggered and then removed the repeater and replaced it with redstone dust. The pc had already processed the energy path to furthest piston so the signal traveled faster and it got triggered instead of the nearest. But hey this is just a theory, a game theory (cit.) I'll test it and tell you if it's true.
EDIT: Yeah it works! If you put a repeater between in the nearest piston redstone path, and then replace with redstone dust, the furthest piston will be activated first! That's interesting